Prolonged stay in bed is a forced consequence of serious illness. Prolonged lying or immobility of the patient is not as harmless as it seems at first glance. Immobility has many very serious complications. "These are images of a bad death sentence."
When lying down, the skin is exposed to a significant effect of friction against linen, push-ups between the tissues of the human body (muscles, bones, etc.) and the surface of the mattress, from crumbs, folds of linen, from sweat, urine and much more. Patients may develop diaper rash, pressure sores, scratching, excessive dryness or moisture of the skin. The skin becomes more sensitive to the air environment, bedridden patients often chill, ventilation in the room, changing underwear and bed linen is poorly tolerated.
When lying down, part of the vessels, especially in the lower extremities, undergoes partial or complete compression. The lack of active movements and muscle contractions, as a result of which blood is squeezed out of the venous bed, reduces the blood flow rate. Paralysis and paresis also contribute to a decrease in blood flow. This can lead to the formation of a blood clot in the vessel.
In the horizontal position, the volume of the lungs when air is inhaled decreases compared to the vertical position. Lack of active movements and a decrease in the volume of pulmonary ventilation leads to a decrease in blood flow and congestion in the lung tissue. The phlegm becomes viscous and difficult to cough up. It accumulates in the airways and increases congestion in the lungs. All this leads to an infectious and inflammatory process in the pulmonary system.
Lack of active movement when lying down leads to a decrease in the tone of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the colon, which in turn leads to constipation or difficult bowel movements. Bedridden patients are forced to defecate in an unusual and difficult position. It helps suppress the urge to defecate. Some patients arbitrarily delay defecation. Constipation and lethargy of the gastrointestinal tract can lead to indigestion, which is usually expressed at first in a coated tongue, halitosis, lack of appetite, and mild nausea. Fecal intoxication develops. Constipation is often replaced by diarrhea. After a few months of lying down, the gastrointestinal tract becomes very susceptible to dietary changes and infection, that is, digestive disorders work faster in such people than in a person leading an active lifestyle.
Loss of muscle activity leads to limited joint mobility, which is called contracture. So, the foot of a lying patient falls forward rather quickly (the position of a lying person is as if on "tiptoe") under the weight of the blanket and the problem of the ankle joint arises, which is called the horse's foot.
In the absence of movement and physical exertion, they become unnecessary for the body. The content of calcium in bones decreases. Osteoporosis develops. It is known that the tubular bones contain red bone marrow, in which blood cells, in particular platelets, are formed, which correspond to blood clotting. When activity decreases, the production of platelets and other blood cells slows down.
Prolonged horizontal position can lead to changes in the urinary system. In a horizontal position, urine remains in the pelvis longer, which causes an infectious process, and then the formation of kidney stones. Prolonged "blanket" heat makes a person vulnerable to cool air, this can affect any organs and systems, including the kidneys. And ignition can form salts, and then sand and stones.
Over time, the patient may experience urinary incontinence, which, in turn, leads to skin problems, as well as the appearance or intensification of depression, because unexpected urination in bed, for a person who is conscious, is a big trouble, stress that is difficult to experience. It should also be remembered that it is harder to hold urine in a horizontal position than in an upright position.
A person, although he sleeps, but does not rest, becomes "lethargic", tired, which, in turn, leads to irritation and further to depression. The manifestations of diseases of the nervous system are increasing. For example, Parkinson's disease. One of the manifestations of this disease is stiffness in movement. So, if he breaks his leg and for this reason lies in bed for a month, then the stiffness will be even greater. The time for rehabilitation after a long stay in patients with diseases of the nervous system increases by 4-5 times.
General the relationship with the bedridden patient always happens "at different levels": the patient lies, and the one who communicates with him either sits or stands. This position makes the hearing strain. The lying patient, of course, is also interested in what is happening around him, and since he cannot see everything, he often listens, which means he strains his hearing. These two reasons lead to stress and even overexertion of hearing, and in the future - to hearing loss. We must not forget that if your patient has a hearing aid, then it is necessary to put it on before communicating, and also to check the health of the batteries and cleanliness, because ear discharge can reduce its effectiveness.