Antithrombotic agents are combination drugs that work against blood clotting through various mechanisms, such as preventing and dissolving a blood clot. Antithrombotic drugs are divided into several groups: anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents and fibrinolytics.
Antithrombotic medicines contain many active substances, for example, streptokinase, acetylsalicylic acid, streptodornase, fibrinolysin and sodium citrate, which have an anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory effect.
Antithrombotic agents have a vasodilating effect, stimulate the formation and development of mast cells, as well as the synthesis of histamine and interleukins, which increase the permeability of blood vessels. Antithrombotic drugs counteract platelet aggregation, reducing their number in the blood and stopping their formation in the red bone marrow.
Medicinal antithrombotic substances reduce blood pressure, change the composition of the intercellular substance of the connective tissue, regulate the blood-tissue barrier, stimulate the secretion of plasmin, which dissolves blood clots and restores blood flow, disrupt the production of immunoglobulins by T- and B-lymphocytes.
Doctors prescribe medicinal antithrombotic agents for peripheral vascular pathology, blood vessel blockage by a thrombus, acute renal failure and acute myocardial infarction, coronary syndrome, heart valve damage, acute respiratory failure, stable and unstable angina pectoris and critical limb ischemia.
Indications for the use of antithrombotic drugs are Raynaud's syndrome, Buerger's disease, arterial hypertension, pelvic inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, atherosclerosis, acute pulmonary embolism and acute deep vein thrombosis. They are used for prolonged physical exertion and for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism.
Antithrombotic agents are developed in the form of tablets, capsules, solutions, suppositories and ampoules. The type of medicine and the most suitable form of release are usually prescribed by the attending physician.