Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the endocrine system caused by a lack of insulin. It is manifested by an increase in blood sugar levels and metabolic disorders. There are two clinical forms of diabetes mellitus:
Insulin dependent (type 1). It develops in children and adults under the age of 35. Treatment of type 1 diabetes requires insulin injections.
Non-insulin dependent (type 2). It is diagnosed in persons over 40 years of age due to a violation of the sensitivity of body tissues to insulin, due to which the process of glucose utilization is disrupted. Type 2 diabetes is usually treated without the need for insulin.
The symptoms of type 1 and 2 diabetes are as follows:
constant thirst, dry mouth,
decrease in body weight against the background of increased appetite,
vomiting, nausea, diarrhea,
increased frequency of urination during the day and at night, enuresis,
the presence of acetone in the urine,
severe muscle weakness.
Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus is impossible without insulin. The patient is given daily injections to compensate for the deficiency in the body of this hormone. Treatment for type 2 diabetes involves avoiding foods that contain sugar. In some cases, patients are prescribed hypoglycemic drugs that increase the sensitivity of cells to glucose or increase the body's own production of insulin. It is impossible to cure diabetes mellitus forever. Doctors can only achieve permanent compensation of pathology. The mainstay of treatment for type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus is diet therapy. The patient should give up easily digestible carbohydrates, fatty foods, sweet fruits and starchy vegetables. The basis of the diet should be coarse grains, unsweetened fruits, dietary meats and fish, cereals.
Hyperglycemia is a dangerous condition that occurs in diabetes mellitus if the blood glucose level drops sharply below 4.0 mmol / L. In this case, the patient should be given emergency assistance. First aid for diabetes mellitus in children and adults consists of:
urgent call of the ambulance brigade,
measuring blood sugar,
eating foods containing a large amount of easily digestible carbohydrates (juices, fruits, sugar).
If, 10 minutes after taking sweets, the blood sugar level has not increased, and the ambulance has not yet arrived, carbohydrates should be eaten again. If a glucose solution is available, it is recommended to administer it intravenously (dosage - 40 to 80 ml). It is important that first aid for type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus is provided immediately. Otherwise, the patient may fall into a coma and die.
Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus requires the appointment of insulin therapy. By the duration of action, insulins are:
They can be administered using traditional insulin syringes, insulin pumps, or injection pens. In some cases, hypoglycemic tablets are used to treat type 1 diabetes. Medications for type 2 diabetes mellitus are various pills, which are conventionally divided into three groups:
increasing the sensitivity of cells and tissues to insulin,
stimulating the secretion of insulin by the pancreas,
minimizing the absorption of glucose in the intestine and removing it from the body.