The gastrointestinal tract, due to its "openness" to the external environment, a variety of functions (trophic, excretory), a large number of components - the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, liver and biliary tract, the pancreas with its exocrine activity - is susceptible to numerous and polymorphic in the manifestations of diseases.
For their treatment, drugs of various pharmacological groups are used, including drugs that replace, stimulate or weaken the secretory function of the digestive glands (bitterness, antacids, choleretic, blockers of histamine H2 receptors, individual enzymes or their complexes, etc.), drugs that stimulate or those that weaken the motor activity of the smooth muscles of the digestive tube, bile and pancreatic ducts (cholinomimetics, anticholinergics, direct antispasmodics), emetics (in case of poisoning) and antiemetics, antiulcer drugs (for ulceration of the stomach, intestines), antibiotics and other antibacterial drugs ), hepatoprotectors, etc.
In the development of acute or chronic intestinal inflammation in children and adults, bacteria (salmonella, causative agents of dysentery, cholera), bacterial toxins (botulism) and viruses (rotavirus, enterovirus) play a role. Also, a microbial infection can join in connection with other disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and chronic bowel diseases.
Acute intestinal infections can be mild. Then the treatment is carried out at home. However, severe infections require serious hospital treatment to prevent complications.
For the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the lower gastrointestinal tract, antimicrobial agents are used, which create a high concentration of the active substance in the intestine. They belong to the "non-absorbable" group, since they are practically not absorbed into the systemic circulation and provide active action locally.
The provision of antimicrobial medicines in gastroenterology has expanded significantly in recent years. This happened after the role of microorganisms in the development of gastrointestinal diseases, which were not previously considered infectious, was studied and proven.
The main situations where antimicrobial prescription is required can be divided into three categories:
Infectious diseases. Diarrhea of bacterial origin, "traveler's diarrhea", acute intestinal infections, viral processes are acute and require urgent prescription of antimicrobial drugs.
Diseases that are often accompanied by a microbial infection, but do not belong to typical acute infections (chronic inflammatory bowel disease, Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastrointestinal tract).
Prevention of inflammatory processes during bowel surgery.
Inflammatory diseases are dangerous not only by the direct action of microbes on the digestive tract. With the development of infection, the digestion process is disrupted: nutrients are not absorbed, and the body does not receive the necessary vitamins, macro- and microelements. Therefore, antimicrobial therapy should be started as soon as possible: this prevents dehydration and a deficiency of essential substances for life.